Talk about CircuitBreaker of Elasticsearch

order

This article mainly studies CircuitBreaker of Elasticsearch

CircuitBreaker

elasticsearch-7.0.1/server/src/main/java/org/elasticsearch/common/breaker/CircuitBreaker.java

/**
 * Interface for an object that can be incremented, breaking after some
 * configured limit has been reached.
 */
public interface CircuitBreaker {

    /**
     * The parent breaker is a sum of all the following breakers combined. With
     * this we allow a single breaker to have a significant amount of memory
     * available while still having a "total" limit for all breakers. Note that
     * it's not a "real" breaker in that it cannot be added to or subtracted
     * from by itself.
     */
    String PARENT = "parent";
    /**
     * The fielddata breaker tracks data used for fielddata (on fields) as well
     * as the id cached used for parent/child queries.
     */
    String FIELDDATA = "fielddata";
    /**
     * The request breaker tracks memory used for particular requests. This
     * includes allocations for things like the cardinality aggregation, and
     * accounting for the number of buckets used in an aggregation request.
     * Generally the amounts added to this breaker are released after a request
     * is finished.
     */
    String REQUEST = "request";
    /**
     * The in-flight request breaker tracks bytes allocated for reading and
     * writing requests on the network layer.
     */
    String IN_FLIGHT_REQUESTS = "in_flight_requests";
    /**
     * The accounting breaker tracks things held in memory that is independent
     * of the request lifecycle. This includes memory used by Lucene for
     * segments.
     */
    String ACCOUNTING = "accounting";

    enum Type {
        // A regular or ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker
        MEMORY,
        // A special parent-type for the hierarchy breaker service
        PARENT,
        // A breaker where every action is a noop, it never breaks
        NOOP;

        public static Type parseValue(String value) {
            switch(value.toLowerCase(Locale.ROOT)) {
                case "noop":
                    return Type.NOOP;
                case "parent":
                    return Type.PARENT;
                case "memory":
                    return Type.MEMORY;
                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("No CircuitBreaker with type: " + value);
            }
        }
    }

    enum Durability {
        // The condition that tripped the circuit breaker fixes itself eventually.
        TRANSIENT,
        // The condition that tripped the circuit breaker requires manual intervention.
        PERMANENT
    }

    /**
     * Trip the circuit breaker
     * @param fieldName name of the field responsible for tripping the breaker
     * @param bytesNeeded bytes asked for but unable to be allocated
     */
    void circuitBreak(String fieldName, long bytesNeeded);

    /**
     * add bytes to the breaker and maybe trip
     * @param bytes number of bytes to add
     * @param label string label describing the bytes being added
     * @return the number of "used" bytes for the circuit breaker
     */
    double addEstimateBytesAndMaybeBreak(long bytes, String label) throws CircuitBreakingException;

    /**
     * Adjust the circuit breaker without tripping
     */
    long addWithoutBreaking(long bytes);

    /**
     * @return the currently used bytes the breaker is tracking
     */
    long getUsed();

    /**
     * @return maximum number of bytes the circuit breaker can track before tripping
     */
    long getLimit();

    /**
     * @return overhead of circuit breaker
     */
    double getOverhead();

    /**
     * @return the number of times the circuit breaker has been tripped
     */
    long getTrippedCount();

    /**
     * @return the name of the breaker
     */
    String getName();

    /**
     * @return whether a tripped circuit breaker will reset itself (transient) or requires manual intervention (permanent).
     */
    Durability getDurability();
}
  • CircuitBreaker defines Type, Durability enumerations; it also defines circuitBreak, addEstimateBytes AndMaybeBreak, addWithoutBreaking, getUsed, getLimit, getOverhead, getTrippedCount, and so on; it has two implementation classes: NoopCircuitBreaker, ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker

NoopCircuitBreaker

elasticsearch-7.0.1/server/src/main/java/org/elasticsearch/common/breaker/NoopCircuitBreaker.java

public class NoopCircuitBreaker implements CircuitBreaker {
    public static final int LIMIT = -1;

    private final String name;

    public NoopCircuitBreaker(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    @Override
    public void circuitBreak(String fieldName, long bytesNeeded) {
        // noop
    }

    @Override
    public double addEstimateBytesAndMaybeBreak(long bytes, String label) throws CircuitBreakingException {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public long addWithoutBreaking(long bytes) {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public long getUsed() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public long getLimit() {
        return LIMIT;
    }

    @Override
    public double getOverhead() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public long getTrippedCount() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return this.name;
    }

    @Override
    public Durability getDurability() {
        return Durability.PERMANENT;
    }
}
  • NoopCircuitBreaker implements the CircuitBreaker interface and does nothing

ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker

elasticsearch-7.0.1/server/src/main/java/org/elasticsearch/common/breaker/ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker.java

public class ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker implements CircuitBreaker {

    private final long memoryBytesLimit;
    private final double overheadConstant;
    private final Durability durability;
    private final AtomicLong used;
    private final AtomicLong trippedCount;
    private final Logger logger;
    private final HierarchyCircuitBreakerService parent;
    private final String name;

    /**
     * Create a circuit breaker that will break if the number of estimated
     * bytes grows above the limit. All estimations will be multiplied by
     * the given overheadConstant. This breaker starts with 0 bytes used.
     * @param settings settings to configure this breaker
     * @param parent parent circuit breaker service to delegate tripped breakers to
     * @param name the name of the breaker
     */
    public ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker(BreakerSettings settings, Logger logger,
                                     HierarchyCircuitBreakerService parent, String name) {
        this(settings, null, logger, parent, name);
    }

    /**
     * Create a circuit breaker that will break if the number of estimated
     * bytes grows above the limit. All estimations will be multiplied by
     * the given overheadConstant. Uses the given oldBreaker to initialize
     * the starting offset.
     * @param settings settings to configure this breaker
     * @param parent parent circuit breaker service to delegate tripped breakers to
     * @param name the name of the breaker
     * @param oldBreaker the previous circuit breaker to inherit the used value from (starting offset)
     */
    public ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker(BreakerSettings settings, ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker oldBreaker,
                                     Logger logger, HierarchyCircuitBreakerService parent, String name) {
        this.name = name;
        this.memoryBytesLimit = settings.getLimit();
        this.overheadConstant = settings.getOverhead();
        this.durability = settings.getDurability();
        if (oldBreaker == null) {
            this.used = new AtomicLong(0);
            this.trippedCount = new AtomicLong(0);
        } else {
            this.used = oldBreaker.used;
            this.trippedCount = oldBreaker.trippedCount;
        }
        this.logger = logger;
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("creating ChildCircuitBreaker with settings {}", settings);
        }
        this.parent = parent;
    }

    /**
     * Method used to trip the breaker, delegates to the parent to determine
     * whether to trip the breaker or not
     */
    @Override
    public void circuitBreak(String fieldName, long bytesNeeded) {
        this.trippedCount.incrementAndGet();
        final String message = "[" + this.name + "] Data too large, data for [" + fieldName + "]" +
                " would be [" + bytesNeeded + "/" + new ByteSizeValue(bytesNeeded) + "]" +
                ", which is larger than the limit of [" +
                memoryBytesLimit + "/" + new ByteSizeValue(memoryBytesLimit) + "]";
        logger.debug("{}", message);
        throw new CircuitBreakingException(message, bytesNeeded, memoryBytesLimit, durability);
    }

    /**
     * Add a number of bytes, tripping the circuit breaker if the aggregated
     * estimates are above the limit. Automatically trips the breaker if the
     * memory limit is set to 0. Will never trip the breaker if the limit is
     * set < 0, but can still be used to aggregate estimations.
     * @param bytes number of bytes to add to the breaker
     * @return number of "used" bytes so far
     */
    @Override
    public double addEstimateBytesAndMaybeBreak(long bytes, String label) throws CircuitBreakingException {
        // short-circuit on no data allowed, immediately throwing an exception
        if (memoryBytesLimit == 0) {
            circuitBreak(label, bytes);
        }

        long newUsed;
        // If there is no limit (-1), we can optimize a bit by using
        // .addAndGet() instead of looping (because we don't have to check a
        // limit), which makes the RamAccountingTermsEnum case faster.
        if (this.memoryBytesLimit == -1) {
            newUsed = noLimit(bytes, label);
        } else {
            newUsed = limit(bytes, label);
        }

        // Additionally, we need to check that we haven't exceeded the parent's limit
        try {
            parent.checkParentLimit((long) (bytes * overheadConstant), label);
        } catch (CircuitBreakingException e) {
            // If the parent breaker is tripped, this breaker has to be
            // adjusted back down because the allocation is "blocked" but the
            // breaker has already been incremented
            this.addWithoutBreaking(-bytes);
            throw e;
        }
        return newUsed;
    }

    private long noLimit(long bytes, String label) {
        long newUsed;
        newUsed = this.used.addAndGet(bytes);
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("[{}] Adding [{}][{}] to used bytes [new used: [{}], limit: [-1b]]",
                this.name, new ByteSizeValue(bytes), label, new ByteSizeValue(newUsed));
        }
        return newUsed;
    }

    private long limit(long bytes, String label) {
        long newUsed;// Otherwise, check the addition and commit the addition, looping if
        // there are conflicts. May result in additional logging, but it's
        // trace logging and shouldn't be counted on for additions.
        long currentUsed;
        do {
            currentUsed = this.used.get();
            newUsed = currentUsed + bytes;
            long newUsedWithOverhead = (long) (newUsed * overheadConstant);
            if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
                logger.trace("[{}] Adding [{}][{}] to used bytes [new used: [{}], limit: {} [{}], estimate: {} [{}]]",
                        this.name,
                        new ByteSizeValue(bytes), label, new ByteSizeValue(newUsed),
                        memoryBytesLimit, new ByteSizeValue(memoryBytesLimit),
                        newUsedWithOverhead, new ByteSizeValue(newUsedWithOverhead));
            }
            if (memoryBytesLimit > 0 && newUsedWithOverhead > memoryBytesLimit) {
                logger.warn("[{}] New used memory {} [{}] for data of [{}] would be larger than configured breaker: {} [{}], breaking",
                        this.name,
                        newUsedWithOverhead, new ByteSizeValue(newUsedWithOverhead), label,
                        memoryBytesLimit, new ByteSizeValue(memoryBytesLimit));
                circuitBreak(label, newUsedWithOverhead);
            }
            // Attempt to set the new used value, but make sure it hasn't changed
            // underneath us, if it has, keep trying until we are able to set it
        } while (!this.used.compareAndSet(currentUsed, newUsed));
        return newUsed;
    }

    /**
     * Add an <b>exact</b> number of bytes, not checking for tripping the
     * circuit breaker. This bypasses the overheadConstant multiplication.
     *
     * Also does not check with the parent breaker to see if the parent limit
     * has been exceeded.
     *
     * @param bytes number of bytes to add to the breaker
     * @return number of "used" bytes so far
     */
    @Override
    public long addWithoutBreaking(long bytes) {
        long u = used.addAndGet(bytes);
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("[{}] Adjusted breaker by [{}] bytes, now [{}]", this.name, bytes, u);
        }
        assert u &gt;= 0 : "Used bytes: [" + u + "] must be &gt;= 0";
        return u;
    }

    /**
     * @return the number of aggregated "used" bytes so far
     */
    @Override
    public long getUsed() {
        return this.used.get();
    }

    /**
     * @return the number of bytes that can be added before the breaker trips
     */
    @Override
    public long getLimit() {
        return this.memoryBytesLimit;
    }

    /**
     * @return the constant multiplier the breaker uses for aggregations
     */
    @Override
    public double getOverhead() {
        return this.overheadConstant;
    }

    /**
     * @return the number of times the breaker has been tripped
     */
    @Override
    public long getTrippedCount() {
        return this.trippedCount.get();
    }

    /**
     * @return the name of the breaker
     */
    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return this.name;
    }

    /**
     * @return whether a tripped circuit breaker will reset itself (transient) or requires manual intervention (permanent).
     */
    @Override
    public Durability getDurability() {
        return this.durability;
    }
}
  • ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker implements CircuitBreaker interface; its circuitBreak method throws CircuitBreakingException
  • The addEstimateBytesAndMaybeBreak method first judges memoryBytesLimit, if 0, then executes the circuitBreak method; if -1, calls noLimit, otherwise calls limit to calculate newUsed, and if no exception is thrown, the parent.checkParentLimit method is finally executed
  • The noLimit method directly executes this.used.addAndGet(bytes); the limit method first calculates the newUsed, and then derives the newUsedWithOverhead from the overheadConstant. If the newUsedWithOverhead is greater than the memory BytesLimit, the circuitBreak method is executed; otherwise, the newUsed is updated to this.user.

Summary

  • CircuitBreaker defines Type, Durability enumerations; it also defines circuitBreak, addEstimateBytes AndMaybeBreak, addWithoutBreaking, getUsed, getLimit, getOverhead, getTrippedCount, and so on; it has two implementation classes: NoopCircuitBreaker, ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker
  • NoopCircuitBreaker implements the CircuitBreaker interface and does nothing
  • ChildMemoryCircuitBreaker implements the CircuitBreaker interface; its circuitBreak method throws CircuitBreakingException; the addEstimateBytesAndMaybeBreak method first determines if newUsed exceeds memoryBytesLimit, then executes the circuitBreak method, and finally executes the parent.checkParentLimit method

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Tags: Programming ElasticSearch Java network

Posted on Thu, 07 Nov 2019 12:03:29 -0800 by thewitt