Ruby: calling class methods from instances

In Ruby, how do you call class methods from instances in this class? Say I have

class Truck
  def self.default_make
    # Class method.
    "mac"
  end

  def initialize
    # Instance method.
    Truck.default_make  # gets the default via the class's method.
    # But: I wish to avoid mentioning Truck. Seems I'm repeating myself.
  end
end

The trunk. Default? Make line retrieves the default value. But is there any reference to the way that Truck says that? It seems that there should be.

#1 building

Use self.class.blah and ClassName.blah for inheritance.

class Truck
  def self.default_make
    "mac"
  end

  def make1
    self.class.default_make
  end

  def make2
    Truck.default_make
  end
end


class BigTruck < Truck
  def self.default_make
    "bigmac"
  end
end

ruby-1.9.3-p0 :021 > b=BigTruck.new
 => #<BigTruck:0x0000000307f348> 
ruby-1.9.3-p0 :022 > b.make1
 => "bigmac" 
ruby-1.9.3-p0 :023 > b.make2
 => "mac" 

#2 building

If you have access to a delegate method, you can do the following:

[20] pry(main)> class Foo
[20] pry(main)*   def self.bar
[20] pry(main)*     "foo bar"
[20] pry(main)*   end  
[20] pry(main)*   delegate :bar, to: 'self.class'
[20] pry(main)* end  
=> [:bar]
[21] pry(main)> Foo.new.bar
=> "foo bar"
[22] pry(main)> Foo.bar
=> "foo bar"

Or, if you want to delegate more than two methods to classes and instances, it might be cleaner:

[1] pry(main)> class Foo
[1] pry(main)*   module AvailableToClassAndInstance
[1] pry(main)*     def bar
[1] pry(main)*       "foo bar"
[1] pry(main)*     end  
[1] pry(main)*   end  
[1] pry(main)*   include AvailableToClassAndInstance
[1] pry(main)*   extend AvailableToClassAndInstance
[1] pry(main)* end  
=> Foo
[2] pry(main)> Foo.new.bar
=> "foo bar"
[3] pry(main)> Foo.bar
=> "foo bar"

A reminder:

Don't delegate anything that doesn't change state to classes and instances, because you'll start to run into strange name conflicts. Do this cautiously, only after you check that nothing else has been flattened.

#3 building

This is a method about how to implement a_class method, which is used as self.class in this case. Note: do not use it in production code, this is for interest:)

Come from: Can you evaluate the code in the context of the caller in Ruby? as well as http://rubychallenger.blogspot.com.au/2011/07/caller-binding.html

# Rabid monkey-patch for Object
require 'continuation' if RUBY_VERSION >= '1.9.0'
class Object
  def __; eval 'self.class', caller_binding; end
  alias :_class :__
  def caller_binding
    cc = nil; count = 0
    set_trace_func lambda { |event, file, lineno, id, binding, klass|
      if count == 2
        set_trace_func nil
        cc.call binding
      elsif event == "return"
        count += 1
      end
    }
    return callcc { |cont| cc = cont }
  end
end

# Now we have awesome
def Tiger
  def roar
    # self.class.roar
    __.roar
    # or, even
    _class.roar
  end
  def self.roar
    # TODO: tigerness
  end
end

Maybe the right answer is to submit a patch for Ruby:)

#4 building

Advantage:

class Truck
  def self.default_make
    "mac"
  end

  attr_reader :make

  private define_method :default_make, &method(:default_make)

  def initialize(make = default_make)
    @make = make
  end
end

puts Truck.new.make # => mac

#5 building

Similar to your question, you can use:

class Truck
  def default_make
    # Do something
  end

  def initialize
    super
    self.default_make
  end
end

Tags: Ruby Mac Lambda

Posted on Wed, 18 Mar 2020 07:18:05 -0700 by wih