Common methods of using axios to send requests in React

Install and introduce axios dependency in React

To use axios request in React project, you need to install axios first:

npm install axios --save

Then use typescript to import axios dependency in react file:

import axios from 'axios';

GET request with axios

There are two ways to use GET requests in axios:

  • One is to use axios.get
  • One is to use axios(config {...})

Using the axios.get method

The common formats for requests using encapsulated axios.get are as follows:

// Make a request for a user with a given ID
axios.get('/getUser?id=12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    // handle success
    console.log(response);

    // update state or do something
    this.setState({
      // ...
    })
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    // handle error
    console.log(error);
  })
  .then(function () {
    // always executed
  });

// Optionally the request above could also be done as
axios.get('/getUser', {
    params: { // Here, the parameters are set as URL parameters (parameters are carried according to the URL)
      id: 12345
    }
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  })
  .then(function () {
    // always executed
  });  

// Want to use async/await? Add the `async` keyword to your outer function/method.
async function getUser() {
  try {
    const response = await axios.get('/getUser?id=12345');
    console.log(response);
  } catch (error) {
    console.error(error);
  }
}

Use axios(config {...})

The format of GET request sent by using axios(config {...}) is as follows:

axios({
  method: 'get',
  url: '/getUser',
  params: {
    id: 12345,
  }
})
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  });

The URL s sent by the above get requests are as follows:

http:HOST_IP:XXXX/getUser?id=12345

POST request with axios

As with GET requests, there are two ways to use POST.

Use axios.post

axios.post('/createUser', {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  });

Use axios(config {...})

    // Send a POST request
    axios({
      method: 'post',
      url: '/createUser',
      data: { // Here, the parameter in data is the RequestBody parameter. The server needs to use the @ RequestBody annotation to get it
        firstName: 'Fred',
        lastName: 'Flintstone'
      }
    }).then(function (response) {
      console.log(response);
    }).catch(function (error) {
      console.log(error);
    });

It should be noted that when using axios(config {}) to send GET or POST requests, params is the URL parameter in the GET request, data in the POST request is the RequestBody parameter, and @ RequestBody annotation is needed to receive in the server, and Spring Boot can automatically resolve to Java corresponding objects.

Send multiple requests at the same time

Using axios, you can also send multiple requests at a time:

function getUserAccount() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345');
}

function getUserPermissions() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions');
}

axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])
  .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) {
    // Both requests are now complete
  }));

Detailed config object configuration item

In the readme document of axios, there are specific configuration instructions for the config object, as follows:

{
  // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request
  url: '/user',

  // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request
  method: 'get', // default

  // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute.
  // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs
  // to methods of that instance.
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',

  // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server
  // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', 'PATCH' and 'DELETE'
  // The last function in the array must return a string or an instance of Buffer, ArrayBuffer,
  // FormData or Stream
  // You may modify the headers object.
  transformRequest: [function (data, headers) {
    // Do whatever you want to transform the data

    return data;
  }],

  // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before
  // it is passed to then/catch
  transformResponse: [function (data) {
    // Do whatever you want to transform the data

    return data;
  }],

  // `headers` are custom headers to be sent
  headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'},

  // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request
  // Must be a plain object or a URLSearchParams object
  params: {
    ID: 12345
  },

  // `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params`
  // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/)
  paramsSerializer: function (params) {
    return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'})
  },

  // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body
  // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH'
  // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be of one of the following types:
  // - string, plain object, ArrayBuffer, ArrayBufferView, URLSearchParams
  // - Browser only: FormData, File, Blob
  // - Node only: Stream, Buffer
  data: {
    firstName: 'Fred'
  },
  
  // syntax alternative to send data into the body
  // method post
  // only the value is sent, not the key
  data: 'Country=Brasil&City=Belo Horizonte',

  // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out.
  // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted.
  timeout: 1000, // default is `0` (no timeout)

  // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests
  // should be made using credentials
  withCredentials: false, // default

  // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier.
  // Return a promise and supply a valid response (see lib/adapters/README.md).
  adapter: function (config) {
    /* ... */
  },

  // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials.
  // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing
  // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.
  // Please note that only HTTP Basic auth is configurable through this parameter.
  // For Bearer tokens and such, use `Authorization` custom headers instead.
  auth: {
    username: 'janedoe',
    password: 's00pers3cret'
  },

  // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with
  // options are: 'arraybuffer', 'document', 'json', 'text', 'stream'
  //   browser only: 'blob'
  responseType: 'json', // default

  // `responseEncoding` indicates encoding to use for decoding responses
  // Note: Ignored for `responseType` of 'stream' or client-side requests
  responseEncoding: 'utf8', // default

  // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token
  xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default

  // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value
  xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default

  // `onUploadProgress` allows handling of progress events for uploads
  // browser only
  onUploadProgress: function (progressEvent) {
    // Do whatever you want with the native progress event
  },

  // `onDownloadProgress` allows handling of progress events for downloads
  // browser only
  onDownloadProgress: function (progressEvent) {
    // Do whatever you want with the native progress event
  },

  // `maxContentLength` defines the max size of the http response content in bytes allowed
  maxContentLength: 2000,

  // `validateStatus` defines whether to resolve or reject the promise for a given
  // HTTP response status code. If `validateStatus` returns `true` (or is set to `null`
  // or `undefined`), the promise will be resolved; otherwise, the promise will be
  // rejected.
  validateStatus: function (status) {
    return status >= 200 && status < 300; // default
  },

  // `maxRedirects` defines the maximum number of redirects to follow in node.js.
  // If set to 0, no redirects will be followed.
  maxRedirects: 5, // default

  // `socketPath` defines a UNIX Socket to be used in node.js.
  // e.g. '/var/run/docker.sock' to send requests to the docker daemon.
  // Only either `socketPath` or `proxy` can be specified.
  // If both are specified, `socketPath` is used.
  socketPath: null, // default

  // `httpAgent` and `httpsAgent` define a custom agent to be used when performing http
  // and https requests, respectively, in node.js. This allows options to be added like
  // `keepAlive` that are not enabled by default.
  httpAgent: new http.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),
  httpsAgent: new https.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),

  // `proxy` defines the hostname and port of the proxy server.
  // You can also define your proxy using the conventional `http_proxy` and
  // `https_proxy` environment variables. If you are using environment variables
  // for your proxy configuration, you can also define a `no_proxy` environment
  // variable as a comma-separated list of domains that should not be proxied.
  // Use `false` to disable proxies, ignoring environment variables.
  // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used to connect to the proxy, and
  // supplies credentials.
  // This will set an `Proxy-Authorization` header, overwriting any existing
  // `Proxy-Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.
  proxy: {
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    port: 9000,
    auth: {
      username: 'mikeymike',
      password: 'rapunz3l'
    }
  },

  // `cancelToken` specifies a cancel token that can be used to cancel the request
  // (see Cancellation section below for details)
  cancelToken: new CancelToken(function (cancel) {
  })
}

Return value object response of axios

The format of response object obtained by axios after request is as follows:

{
  // `data` is the response that was provided by the server
  data: {},

  // `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response
  status: 200,

  // `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response
  statusText: 'OK',

  // `headers` the HTTP headers that the server responded with
  // All header names are lower cased and can be accessed using the bracket notation.
  // Example: `response.headers['content-type']`
  headers: {},

  // `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request
  config: {},

  // `request` is the request that generated this response
  // It is the last ClientRequest instance in node.js (in redirects)
  // and an XMLHttpRequest instance in the browser
  request: {}
}

When you use the then method after the request, you can obtain the attribute values of the response object, where data is the corresponding object returned by the server:

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response.data);
    console.log(response.status);
    console.log(response.statusText);
    console.log(response.headers);
    console.log(response.config);
  });

Global configuration of axios

When using axios, you can set the axios object globally. This setting will be applied to all axios requests in the current javascript class where axios is located, such as the following settings:

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com';
axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;
axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

Single instance configuration of axios

If you do not need to set axios globally, you can set a single object when using an axios object, for example:

// Set config defaults when creating the instance
const instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://api.example.com'
});

// Alter defaults after instance has been created
instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

Use of axios interceptor

You can use the axios interceptor to intercept the request and make customized settings before sending the request or responding to the response (then method). An example of defining the request and response interceptors is as follows:

// Add a request interceptor
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
    // Do something before request is sent
    return config;
  }, function (error) {
    // Do something with request error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

// Add a response interceptor
axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) {
    // Any status code that lie within the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger
    // Do something with response data
    return response;
  }, function (error) {
    // Any status codes that falls outside the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger
    // Do something with response error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

When you need to delete an interceptor, do the following:

const myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});
axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

You can also add the defined interceptor to a custom axios instance:

const instance = axios.create();
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

For details, please refer to the axios document https://github.com/axios/axios

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Tags: axios React JQuery JSON

Posted on Tue, 03 Mar 2020 22:45:51 -0800 by shane18