C's simple and unsafe two-way "confusion"

I'm looking for very simple obfuscation (encryption and decryption, but not necessarily security) capabilities for some data. This is not a critical task. I need something to keep honest people honest, but ROT13 or Base64 Be strong.

I prefer to have included .NET framework 2.0, so I don't have to worry about any external dependencies.

I really don't want to mess with public / private keys and so on. I know very little about encryption, but I know that nothing I write is worthless... In fact, I may mess up math and make it trivial.

#1 building

Namespace System.Security.Cryptography contains TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider and RijndaelManaged classes

Don't forget to add a reference to the System.Security assembly.

#2 building

Yes, add the System.Security assembly and import the System.Security.Cryptography namespace. The following is a simple example of symmetric (DES) algorithm encryption:

DESCryptoServiceProvider des = new DESCryptoServiceProvider();
des.GenerateKey();
byte[] key = des.Key; // save this!

ICryptoTransform encryptor = des.CreateEncryptor();
// encrypt
byte[] enc = encryptor.TransformFinalBlock(new byte[] { 1, 2, 3, 4 }, 0, 4);

ICryptoTransform decryptor = des.CreateDecryptor();

// decrypt
byte[] originalAgain = decryptor.TransformFinalBlock(enc, 0, enc.Length);
Debug.Assert(originalAgain[0] == 1);

#3 building

If you just want simple encryption (i.e., a determined cracker may break, but most temporary users will be locked), just select two passwords of equal length, such as:

deoxyribonucleicacid
while (x>0) { x-- };

And xor your data (loop password if necessary) (a). For example:

1111-2222-3333-4444-5555-6666-7777
deoxyribonucleicaciddeoxyribonucle
while (x>0) { x-- };while (x>0) { 

People searching for your binaries may think that DNA strings are a keyword, but they are less likely to think that C code is not uninitialized memory stored in binaries.

(a) Keep in mind that this is very simple encryption and, by some definitions, may not be considered encryption at all (because the purpose of encryption is to prevent unauthorized access rather than just make it more difficult). Of course, when someone uses a steel pipe to hold the key ring, even the strongest encryption is not safe.

As mentioned in the first sentence, this is a means of making it difficult for an occasional attacker to move on. It's similar to preventing theft in your home - you don't need to make it indestructible, you just need to make it harder to prevent than the house next door: -)

#4 building

I know you said you don't care about its security, but if you choose DES, You may choose AES, This is the updated encryption method.

#5 building

Encryption is easy: as others have pointed out, there are classes in the System.Security.Cryptography namespace that do all the work for you. Use them instead of any native solution.

But decryption is also easy. The problem you encounter is not encryption algorithms, but protecting access to the key used for decryption.

I will use one of the following solutions:

  • Use the DPAPI of the ProtectedData class with the CurrentUser scope. This is simple because you don't have to worry about the key. Data can only be decrypted by the same user, so data cannot be shared between users or computers.

  • Use DPAPI of ProtectedData class with LocalMachine scope. It is suitable for protecting configuration data on a single security server. But anyone who can log in to the machine can encrypt it, so unless the server is secure, it's not good.

  • Any symmetric algorithm. If I don't care what algorithm to use (actually it defaults to Rijndael), I usually use the static symmetricalalgorithm. Create () method. In this case, you need to protect your key in some way. For example, you can obfuscate it in some way and hide it in code. But note that anyone smart enough to decompile the code can find the key.

#6 building

The other answers here work, but AES is a more secure and up-to-date encryption algorithm. This is the class I used to perform AES encryption a few years ago, and I've modified it for a while to be more friendly to Web applications (for example, I've built encryption / decryption methods that use URL friendly strings). It also has methods for working with byte arrays.

Note: you should use different values in the Key (32 bytes) and Vector (16 bytes) arrays! You don't want someone to figure out your Key by assuming you use this code as is! All you have to do is change some numbers in the Key and Vector arrays (must be < = 255) (I keep an invalid value in the Vector array to make sure you do this...). You can use the https://www.random.org/bytes/ Easily generate new sets:

It is simple to use: just instantiate classes, then call (usual) EncryptToString (string StringToEncrypt) and DecryptString (string StringToDecrypt) as methods. Once you have this course, it won't be easier (or safer).

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.IO;


public class SimpleAES
{
    // Change these keys
    private byte[] Key = __Replace_Me__({ 123, 217, 19, 11, 24, 26, 85, 45, 114, 184, 27, 162, 37, 112, 222, 209, 241, 24, 175, 144, 173, 53, 196, 29, 24, 26, 17, 218, 131, 236, 53, 209 });

    // a hardcoded IV should not be used for production AES-CBC code
    // IVs should be unpredictable per ciphertext
    private byte[] Vector = __Replace_Me__({ 146, 64, 191, 111, 23, 3, 113, 119, 231, 121, 2521, 112, 79, 32, 114, 156 });


    private ICryptoTransform EncryptorTransform, DecryptorTransform;
    private System.Text.UTF8Encoding UTFEncoder;

    public SimpleAES()
    {
        //This is our encryption method
        RijndaelManaged rm = new RijndaelManaged();

        //Create an encryptor and a decryptor using our encryption method, key, and vector.
        EncryptorTransform = rm.CreateEncryptor(this.Key, this.Vector);
        DecryptorTransform = rm.CreateDecryptor(this.Key, this.Vector);

        //Used to translate bytes to text and vice versa
        UTFEncoder = new System.Text.UTF8Encoding();
    }

    /// -------------- Two Utility Methods (not used but may be useful) -----------
    /// Generates an encryption key.
    static public byte[] GenerateEncryptionKey()
    {
        //Generate a Key.
        RijndaelManaged rm = new RijndaelManaged();
        rm.GenerateKey();
        return rm.Key;
    }

    /// Generates a unique encryption vector
    static public byte[] GenerateEncryptionVector()
    {
        //Generate a Vector
        RijndaelManaged rm = new RijndaelManaged();
        rm.GenerateIV();
        return rm.IV;
    }


    /// ----------- The commonly used methods ------------------------------    
    /// Encrypt some text and return a string suitable for passing in a URL.
    public string EncryptToString(string TextValue)
    {
        return ByteArrToString(Encrypt(TextValue));
    }

    /// Encrypt some text and return an encrypted byte array.
    public byte[] Encrypt(string TextValue)
    {
        //Translates our text value into a byte array.
        Byte[] bytes = UTFEncoder.GetBytes(TextValue);

        //Used to stream the data in and out of the CryptoStream.
        MemoryStream memoryStream = new MemoryStream();

        /*
         * We will have to write the unencrypted bytes to the stream,
         * then read the encrypted result back from the stream.
         */
        #region Write the decrypted value to the encryption stream
        CryptoStream cs = new CryptoStream(memoryStream, EncryptorTransform, CryptoStreamMode.Write);
        cs.Write(bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
        cs.FlushFinalBlock();
        #endregion

        #region Read encrypted value back out of the stream
        memoryStream.Position = 0;
        byte[] encrypted = new byte[memoryStream.Length];
        memoryStream.Read(encrypted, 0, encrypted.Length);
        #endregion

        //Clean up.
        cs.Close();
        memoryStream.Close();

        return encrypted;
    }

    /// The other side: Decryption methods
    public string DecryptString(string EncryptedString)
    {
        return Decrypt(StrToByteArray(EncryptedString));
    }

    /// Decryption when working with byte arrays.    
    public string Decrypt(byte[] EncryptedValue)
    {
        #region Write the encrypted value to the decryption stream
        MemoryStream encryptedStream = new MemoryStream();
        CryptoStream decryptStream = new CryptoStream(encryptedStream, DecryptorTransform, CryptoStreamMode.Write);
        decryptStream.Write(EncryptedValue, 0, EncryptedValue.Length);
        decryptStream.FlushFinalBlock();
        #endregion

        #region Read the decrypted value from the stream.
        encryptedStream.Position = 0;
        Byte[] decryptedBytes = new Byte[encryptedStream.Length];
        encryptedStream.Read(decryptedBytes, 0, decryptedBytes.Length);
        encryptedStream.Close();
        #endregion
        return UTFEncoder.GetString(decryptedBytes);
    }

    /// Convert a string to a byte array.  NOTE: Normally we'd create a Byte Array from a string using an ASCII encoding (like so).
    //      System.Text.ASCIIEncoding encoding = new System.Text.ASCIIEncoding();
    //      return encoding.GetBytes(str);
    // However, this results in character values that cannot be passed in a URL.  So, instead, I just
    // lay out all of the byte values in a long string of numbers (three per - must pad numbers less than 100).
    public byte[] StrToByteArray(string str)
    {
        if (str.Length == 0)
            throw new Exception("Invalid string value in StrToByteArray");

        byte val;
        byte[] byteArr = new byte[str.Length / 3];
        int i = 0;
        int j = 0;
        do
        {
            val = byte.Parse(str.Substring(i, 3));
            byteArr[j++] = val;
            i += 3;
        }
        while (i < str.Length);
        return byteArr;
    }

    // Same comment as above.  Normally the conversion would use an ASCII encoding in the other direction:
    //      System.Text.ASCIIEncoding enc = new System.Text.ASCIIEncoding();
    //      return enc.GetString(byteArr);    
    public string ByteArrToString(byte[] byteArr)
    {
        byte val;
        string tempStr = "";
        for (int i = 0; i <= byteArr.GetUpperBound(0); i++)
        {
            val = byteArr[i];
            if (val < (byte)10)
                tempStr += "00" + val.ToString();
            else if (val < (byte)100)
                tempStr += "0" + val.ToString();
            else
                tempStr += val.ToString();
        }
        return tempStr;
    }
}

#7 building

Years later, I came back and said, "don't do this!"! Have a look What's wrong with XOR encryption? Details.

A very simple, easy two-way encryption is XOR encryption.

  1. Take out the password. Let it be my mypass.
  2. Converts the password to binary (based on ASCII). The password is 01110101 011110000 011000000 011001110011 011110011.
  3. Capture the information you want to encode. Convert it to binary.
  4. View the length of the message. If the message length is 400 bytes, the password is converted to a 400 byte string by repeating over and over. It will be 011011111001 011110000 0110001011110011 011110011 01110101 011111001 011110000 0110001011110011 011110011 01110101 011111001 011110000 0110001011110011 011110011... (or mypassmypassmypass...)
  5. XOR the message with a long password.
  6. Send results.
  7. Another time, XOR encrypted messages use the same password (mypassmypassmypass...).
  8. Have your news!

#8 building

I just want to add that I can improve Mud's SimplerAES by adding a random IV, which is returned to the encrypted string. This improves encryption because encrypting the same string results in different output each time.

public class StringEncryption
{
    private readonly Random random;
    private readonly byte[] key;
    private readonly RijndaelManaged rm;
    private readonly UTF8Encoding encoder;

    public StringEncryption()
    {
        this.random = new Random();
        this.rm = new RijndaelManaged();
        this.encoder = new UTF8Encoding();
        this.key = Convert.FromBase64String("Your+Secret+Static+Encryption+Key+Goes+Here=");
    }

    public string Encrypt(string unencrypted)
    {
        var vector = new byte[16];
        this.random.NextBytes(vector);
        var cryptogram = vector.Concat(this.Encrypt(this.encoder.GetBytes(unencrypted), vector));
        return Convert.ToBase64String(cryptogram.ToArray());
    }

    public string Decrypt(string encrypted)
    {
        var cryptogram = Convert.FromBase64String(encrypted);
        if (cryptogram.Length < 17)
        {
            throw new ArgumentException("Not a valid encrypted string", "encrypted");
        }

        var vector = cryptogram.Take(16).ToArray();
        var buffer = cryptogram.Skip(16).ToArray();
        return this.encoder.GetString(this.Decrypt(buffer, vector));
    }

    private byte[] Encrypt(byte[] buffer, byte[] vector)
    {
        var encryptor = this.rm.CreateEncryptor(this.key, vector);
        return this.Transform(buffer, encryptor);
    }

    private byte[] Decrypt(byte[] buffer, byte[] vector)
    {
        var decryptor = this.rm.CreateDecryptor(this.key, vector);
        return this.Transform(buffer, decryptor);
    }

    private byte[] Transform(byte[] buffer, ICryptoTransform transform)
    {
        var stream = new MemoryStream();
        using (var cs = new CryptoStream(stream, transform, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
        {
            cs.Write(buffer, 0, buffer.Length);
        }

        return stream.ToArray();
    }
}

And bonus unit test

[Test]
public void EncryptDecrypt()
{
    // Arrange
    var subject = new StringEncryption();
    var originalString = "Testing123!£$";

    // Act
    var encryptedString1 = subject.Encrypt(originalString);
    var encryptedString2 = subject.Encrypt(originalString);
    var decryptedString1 = subject.Decrypt(encryptedString1);
    var decryptedString2 = subject.Decrypt(encryptedString2);

    // Assert
    Assert.AreEqual(originalString, decryptedString1, "Decrypted string should match original string");
    Assert.AreEqual(originalString, decryptedString2, "Decrypted string should match original string");
    Assert.AreNotEqual(originalString, encryptedString1, "Encrypted string should not match original string");
    Assert.AreNotEqual(encryptedString1, encryptedString2, "String should never be encrypted the same twice");
}

#9 building

I combine the best I've found with a few answers and comments.

  • Random initialization vector pre encrypted text (@ jbrule)
  • Use TransformFinalBlock() instead of MemoryStream (@ RenniePet)
  • No pre filled key to avoid anyone copying and pasting disaster
  • Proper disposal and use mode

Code:

/// <summary>
/// Simple encryption/decryption using a random initialization vector
/// and prepending it to the crypto text.
/// </summary>
/// <remarks>Based on multiple answers in http://stackoverflow.com/questions/165808/simple-two-way-encryption-for-c-sharp </remarks>
public class SimpleAes : IDisposable
{
    /// <summary>
    ///     Initialization vector length in bytes.
    /// </summary>
    private const int IvBytes = 16;

    /// <summary>
    ///     Must be exactly 16, 24 or 32 bytes long.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly byte[] Key = Convert.FromBase64String("FILL ME WITH 24 (2 pad chars), 32 OR 44 (1 pad char) RANDOM CHARS"); // Base64 has a blowup of four-thirds (33%)

    private readonly UTF8Encoding _encoder;
    private readonly ICryptoTransform _encryptor;
    private readonly RijndaelManaged _rijndael;

    public SimpleAes()
    {
        _rijndael = new RijndaelManaged {Key = Key};
        _rijndael.GenerateIV();
        _encryptor = _rijndael.CreateEncryptor();
        _encoder = new UTF8Encoding();
    }

    public string Decrypt(string encrypted)
    {
        return _encoder.GetString(Decrypt(Convert.FromBase64String(encrypted)));
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        _rijndael.Dispose();
        _encryptor.Dispose();
    }

    public string Encrypt(string unencrypted)
    {
        return Convert.ToBase64String(Encrypt(_encoder.GetBytes(unencrypted)));
    }

    private byte[] Decrypt(byte[] buffer)
    {
        // IV is prepended to cryptotext
        byte[] iv = buffer.Take(IvBytes).ToArray();
        using (ICryptoTransform decryptor = _rijndael.CreateDecryptor(_rijndael.Key, iv))
        {
            return decryptor.TransformFinalBlock(buffer, IvBytes, buffer.Length - IvBytes);
        }
    }

    private byte[] Encrypt(byte[] buffer)
    {
        // Prepend cryptotext with IV
        byte [] inputBuffer = _encryptor.TransformFinalBlock(buffer, 0, buffer.Length); 
        return _rijndael.IV.Concat(inputBuffer).ToArray();
    }
}

Update 2015-07-18: fixed errors in private Encrypt() method with @ bpsilver and @ Evereq comments. IV was unexpectedly encrypted and is now prefixed with clear text as expected by Decrypt().

#10 building

I think this is the simplest one in the world!

string encrypted = "Text".Aggregate("", (c, a) => c + (char) (a + 2));

test

 Console.WriteLine(("Hello").Aggregate("", (c, a) => c + (char) (a + 1)));
            //Output is Ifmmp
 Console.WriteLine(("Ifmmp").Aggregate("", (c, a) => c + (char)(a - 1)));
            //Output is Hello

#11 building

I want to publish my solutions because none of them are as simple as mine. Let me know what you think:

 // This will return an encrypted string based on the unencrypted parameter
 public static string Encrypt(this string DecryptedValue)
 {
      HttpServerUtility.UrlTokenEncode(MachineKey.Protect(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(DecryptedValue.Trim())));
 }

 // This will return an unencrypted string based on the parameter
 public static string Decrypt(this string EncryptedValue)
 {
      Encoding.UTF8.GetString(MachineKey.Unprotect(HttpServerUtility.UrlTokenDecode(EncryptedValue)));
 }

Optional

This assumes that the MachineKey of the server used to encrypt the value is the same as that of the server used to decrypt the value. If necessary, you can specify a static MachineKey in Web.config so that your application can decrypt / encrypt data wherever it is running (for example, development and production servers). You can Follow these instructions to generate a static machine key .

#12 building

Using the built-in. Net Cryptography library, this example shows how to use the advanced encryption standard (AES).

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Security.Cryptography;

namespace Aes_Example
{
    class AesExample
    {
        public static void Main()
        {
            try
            {

                string original = "Here is some data to encrypt!";

                // Create a new instance of the Aes
                // class.  This generates a new key and initialization 
                // vector (IV).
                using (Aes myAes = Aes.Create())
                {

                    // Encrypt the string to an array of bytes.
                    byte[] encrypted = EncryptStringToBytes_Aes(original, myAes.Key, myAes.IV);

                    // Decrypt the bytes to a string.
                    string roundtrip = DecryptStringFromBytes_Aes(encrypted, myAes.Key, myAes.IV);

                    //Display the original data and the decrypted data.
                    Console.WriteLine("Original:   {0}", original);
                    Console.WriteLine("Round Trip: {0}", roundtrip);
                }

            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Error: {0}", e.Message);
            }
        }
        static byte[] EncryptStringToBytes_Aes(string plainText, byte[] Key,byte[] IV)
        {
            // Check arguments.
            if (plainText == null || plainText.Length <= 0)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("plainText");
            if (Key == null || Key.Length <= 0)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("Key");
            if (IV == null || IV.Length <= 0)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("Key");
            byte[] encrypted;
            // Create an Aes object
            // with the specified key and IV.
            using (Aes aesAlg = Aes.Create())
            {
                aesAlg.Key = Key;
                aesAlg.IV = IV;

                // Create a decrytor to perform the stream transform.
                ICryptoTransform encryptor = aesAlg.CreateEncryptor(aesAlg.Key, aesAlg.IV);

                // Create the streams used for encryption.
                using (MemoryStream msEncrypt = new MemoryStream())
                {
                    using (CryptoStream csEncrypt = new CryptoStream(msEncrypt, encryptor, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
                    {
                        using (StreamWriter swEncrypt = new StreamWriter(csEncrypt))
                        {

                            //Write all data to the stream.
                            swEncrypt.Write(plainText);
                        }
                        encrypted = msEncrypt.ToArray();
                    }
                }
            }


            // Return the encrypted bytes from the memory stream.
            return encrypted;

        }

        static string DecryptStringFromBytes_Aes(byte[] cipherText, byte[] Key, byte[] IV)
        {
            // Check arguments.
            if (cipherText == null || cipherText.Length <= 0)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("cipherText");
            if (Key == null || Key.Length <= 0)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("Key");
            if (IV == null || IV.Length <= 0)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("Key");

            // Declare the string used to hold
            // the decrypted text.
            string plaintext = null;

            // Create an Aes object
            // with the specified key and IV.
            using (Aes aesAlg = Aes.Create())
            {
                aesAlg.Key = Key;
                aesAlg.IV = IV;

                // Create a decrytor to perform the stream transform.
                ICryptoTransform decryptor = aesAlg.CreateDecryptor(aesAlg.Key, aesAlg.IV);

                // Create the streams used for decryption.
                using (MemoryStream msDecrypt = new MemoryStream(cipherText))
                {
                    using (CryptoStream csDecrypt = new CryptoStream(msDecrypt, decryptor, CryptoStreamMode.Read))
                    {
                        using (StreamReader srDecrypt = new StreamReader(csDecrypt))
                        {

                            // Read the decrypted bytes from the decrypting stream
                            // and place them in a string.
                            plaintext = srDecrypt.ReadToEnd();
                        }
                    }
                }

            }

            return plaintext;

        }
    }
}

#13 building

I've been using Mark Brittingham Accept the answer, it gives me a lot of help. Recently I had to send encrypted text to another organization, which is where the problem occurred. OP doesn't need these options, but because this is a popular issue, I released my changes (from Here Borrowed Encrypt and Decrypt functions):

  1. The IV of each message is different - connect the IV bytes to the password bytes before getting hex. Of course, this is a practice that needs to be communicated to the parties receiving the ciphertext.
  2. Allow two constructors - one for the default RijndaelManaged value, and the other to specify the property value (based on the mutual agreement between the encryption and decryption parties)

This is the course (final test sample):

/// <summary>
/// Based on https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.rijndaelmanaged(v=vs.110).aspx
/// Uses UTF8 Encoding
///  http://security.stackexchange.com/a/90850
/// </summary>
public class AnotherAES : IDisposable
{
    private RijndaelManaged rijn;

    /// <summary>
    /// Initialize algo with key, block size, key size, padding mode and cipher mode to be known.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="key">ASCII key to be used for encryption or decryption</param>
    /// <param name="blockSize">block size to use for AES algorithm. 128, 192 or 256 bits</param>
    /// <param name="keySize">key length to use for AES algorithm. 128, 192, or 256 bits</param>
    /// <param name="paddingMode"></param>
    /// <param name="cipherMode"></param>
    public AnotherAES(string key, int blockSize, int keySize, PaddingMode paddingMode, CipherMode cipherMode)
    {
        rijn = new RijndaelManaged();
        rijn.Key = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(key);
        rijn.BlockSize = blockSize;
        rijn.KeySize = keySize;
        rijn.Padding = paddingMode;
        rijn.Mode = cipherMode;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initialize algo just with key
    /// Defaults for RijndaelManaged class: 
    /// Block Size: 256 bits (32 bytes)
    /// Key Size: 128 bits (16 bytes)
    /// Padding Mode: PKCS7
    /// Cipher Mode: CBC
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="key"></param>
    public AnotherAES(string key)
    {
        rijn = new RijndaelManaged();
        byte[] keyArray = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(key);
        rijn.Key = keyArray;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Based on https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.rijndaelmanaged(v=vs.110).aspx
    /// Encrypt a string using RijndaelManaged encryptor.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="plainText">string to be encrypted</param>
    /// <param name="IV">initialization vector to be used by crypto algorithm</param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public byte[] Encrypt(string plainText, byte[] IV)
    {
        if (rijn == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("Provider not initialized");

        // Check arguments.
        if (plainText == null || plainText.Length <= 0)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("plainText cannot be null or empty");
        if (IV == null || IV.Length <= 0)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("IV cannot be null or empty");
        byte[] encrypted;

        // Create a decrytor to perform the stream transform.
        using (ICryptoTransform encryptor = rijn.CreateEncryptor(rijn.Key, IV))
        {
            // Create the streams used for encryption.
            using (MemoryStream msEncrypt = new MemoryStream())
            {
                using (CryptoStream csEncrypt = new CryptoStream(msEncrypt, encryptor, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
                {
                    using (StreamWriter swEncrypt = new StreamWriter(csEncrypt))
                    {
                        //Write all data to the stream.
                        swEncrypt.Write(plainText);
                    }
                    encrypted = msEncrypt.ToArray();
                }
            }
        }
        // Return the encrypted bytes from the memory stream.
        return encrypted;
    }//end EncryptStringToBytes

    /// <summary>
    /// Based on https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.rijndaelmanaged(v=vs.110).aspx
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cipherText">bytes to be decrypted back to plaintext</param>
    /// <param name="IV">initialization vector used to encrypt the bytes</param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public string Decrypt(byte[] cipherText, byte[] IV)
    {
        if (rijn == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("Provider not initialized");

        // Check arguments.
        if (cipherText == null || cipherText.Length <= 0)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("cipherText cannot be null or empty");
        if (IV == null || IV.Length <= 0)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("IV cannot be null or empty");

        // Declare the string used to hold the decrypted text.
        string plaintext = null;

        // Create a decrytor to perform the stream transform.
        using (ICryptoTransform decryptor = rijn.CreateDecryptor(rijn.Key, IV))
        {
            // Create the streams used for decryption.
            using (MemoryStream msDecrypt = new MemoryStream(cipherText))
            {
                using (CryptoStream csDecrypt = new CryptoStream(msDecrypt, decryptor, CryptoStreamMode.Read))
                {
                    using (StreamReader srDecrypt = new StreamReader(csDecrypt))
                    {
                        // Read the decrypted bytes from the decrypting stream and place them in a string.
                        plaintext = srDecrypt.ReadToEnd();
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        return plaintext;
    }//end DecryptStringFromBytes

    /// <summary>
    /// Generates a unique encryption vector using RijndaelManaged.GenerateIV() method
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public byte[] GenerateEncryptionVector()
    {
        if (rijn == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("Provider not initialized");

        //Generate a Vector
        rijn.GenerateIV();
        return rijn.IV;
    }//end GenerateEncryptionVector


    /// <summary>
    /// Based on https://stackoverflow.com/a/1344255
    /// Generate a unique string given number of bytes required.
    /// This string can be used as IV. IV byte size should be equal to cipher-block byte size. 
    /// Allows seeing IV in plaintext so it can be passed along a url or some message.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="numBytes"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static string GetUniqueString(int numBytes)
    {
        char[] chars = new char[62];
        chars = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890".ToCharArray();
        byte[] data = new byte[1];
        using (RNGCryptoServiceProvider crypto = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider())
        {
            data = new byte[numBytes];
            crypto.GetBytes(data);
        }
        StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(numBytes);
        foreach (byte b in data)
        {
            result.Append(chars[b % (chars.Length)]);
        }
        return result.ToString();
    }//end GetUniqueKey()

    /// <summary>
    /// Converts a string to byte array. Useful when converting back hex string which was originally formed from bytes.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="hex"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static byte[] StringToByteArray(String hex)
    {
        int NumberChars = hex.Length;
        byte[] bytes = new byte[NumberChars / 2];
        for (int i = 0; i < NumberChars; i += 2)
            bytes[i / 2] = Convert.ToByte(hex.Substring(i, 2), 16);
        return bytes;
    }//end StringToByteArray

    /// <summary>
    /// Dispose RijndaelManaged object initialized in the constructor
    /// </summary>
    public void Dispose()
    {
        if (rijn != null)
            rijn.Dispose();
    }//end Dispose()
}//end class

And..

Here is the test sample:

class Program
{
    string key;
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        Program p = new Program();

        //get 16 byte key (just demo - typically you will have a predetermined key)
        p.key = AnotherAES.GetUniqueString(16);

        string plainText = "Hello World!";

        //encrypt
        string hex = p.Encrypt(plainText);

        //decrypt
        string roundTrip = p.Decrypt(hex);

        Console.WriteLine("Round Trip: {0}", roundTrip);
    }

    string Encrypt(string plainText)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("\nSending (encrypt side)...");
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Text: {0}", plainText);
        Console.WriteLine("Key: {0}", key);
        string hex = string.Empty;
        string ivString = AnotherAES.GetUniqueString(16);
        Console.WriteLine("IV: {0}", ivString);
        using (AnotherAES aes = new AnotherAES(key))
        {
            //encrypting side
            byte[] IV = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(ivString);

            //get encrypted bytes (IV bytes prepended to cipher bytes)
            byte[] encryptedBytes = aes.Encrypt(plainText, IV);
            byte[] encryptedBytesWithIV = IV.Concat(encryptedBytes).ToArray();

            //get hex string to send with url
            //this hex has both IV and ciphertext
            hex = BitConverter.ToString(encryptedBytesWithIV).Replace("-", "");
            Console.WriteLine("sending hex: {0}", hex);
        }

        return hex;
    }

    string Decrypt(string hex)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("\nReceiving (decrypt side)...");
        Console.WriteLine("received hex: {0}", hex);
        string roundTrip = string.Empty;
        Console.WriteLine("Key " + key);
        using (AnotherAES aes = new AnotherAES(key))
        {
            //get bytes from url
            byte[] encryptedBytesWithIV = AnotherAES.StringToByteArray(hex);

            byte[] IV = encryptedBytesWithIV.Take(16).ToArray();

            Console.WriteLine("IV: {0}", System.Text.Encoding.Default.GetString(IV));

            byte[] cipher = encryptedBytesWithIV.Skip(16).ToArray();

            roundTrip = aes.Decrypt(cipher, IV);
        }
        return roundTrip;
    }
}

#14 building

Use TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider in System.Security.Cryptography:

public static class CryptoHelper
{
    private const string Key = "MyHashString";
    private static TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider GetCryproProvider()
    {
        var md5 = new MD5CryptoServiceProvider();
        var key = md5.ComputeHash(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(Key));
        return new TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider() { Key = key, Mode = CipherMode.ECB, Padding = PaddingMode.PKCS7 };
    }

    public static string Encrypt(string plainString)
    {
        var data = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(plainString);
        var tripleDes = GetCryproProvider();
        var transform = tripleDes.CreateEncryptor();
        var resultsByteArray = transform.TransformFinalBlock(data, 0, data.Length);
        return Convert.ToBase64String(resultsByteArray);
    }

    public static string Decrypt(string encryptedString)
    {
        var data = Convert.FromBase64String(encryptedString);
        var tripleDes = GetCryproProvider();
        var transform = tripleDes.CreateDecryptor();
        var resultsByteArray = transform.TransformFinalBlock(data, 0, data.Length);
        return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(resultsByteArray);
    }
}

#15 building

I changed. this :

public string ByteArrToString(byte[] byteArr)
{
    byte val;
    string tempStr = "";
    for (int i = 0; i <= byteArr.GetUpperBound(0); i++)
    {
        val = byteArr[i];
        if (val < (byte)10)
            tempStr += "00" + val.ToString();
        else if (val < (byte)100)
            tempStr += "0" + val.ToString();
        else
            tempStr += val.ToString();
    }
    return tempStr;
}

In this regard:

    public string ByteArrToString(byte[] byteArr)
    {
        string temp = "";
        foreach (byte b in byteArr)
            temp += b.ToString().PadLeft(3, '0');
        return temp;
    }

#16 building

I cleaned SimpleAES (above) for my use. Fixed complex encryption / decryption method; separation method for encoding byte buffer, string and URL friendly string; URL encoding using existing library.

The code is smaller, simpler, faster and the output is more concise. For example, johnsmith@gmail.com generates:

SimpleAES: "096114178117140150104121138042115022037019164188092040214235183167012211175176167001017163166152"
SimplerAES: "YHKydYyWaHmKKnMWJROkvFwo1uu3pwzTr7CnARGjppg%3d"

Code:

public class SimplerAES
{
    private static byte[] key = __Replace_Me__({ 123, 217, 19, 11, 24, 26, 85, 45, 114, 184, 27, 162, 37, 112, 222, 209, 241, 24, 175, 144, 173, 53, 196, 29, 24, 26, 17, 218, 131, 236, 53, 209 });

    // a hardcoded IV should not be used for production AES-CBC code
    // IVs should be unpredictable per ciphertext
    private static byte[] vector = __Replace_Me_({ 146, 64, 191, 111, 23, 3, 113, 119, 231, 121, 221, 112, 79, 32, 114, 156 });

    private ICryptoTransform encryptor, decryptor;
    private UTF8Encoding encoder;

    public SimplerAES()
    {
        RijndaelManaged rm = new RijndaelManaged();
        encryptor = rm.CreateEncryptor(key, vector);
        decryptor = rm.CreateDecryptor(key, vector);
        encoder = new UTF8Encoding();
    }

    public string Encrypt(string unencrypted)
    {
        return Convert.ToBase64String(Encrypt(encoder.GetBytes(unencrypted)));
    }

    public string Decrypt(string encrypted)
    {
        return encoder.GetString(Decrypt(Convert.FromBase64String(encrypted)));
    }

    public byte[] Encrypt(byte[] buffer)
    {
        return Transform(buffer, encryptor);
    }

    public byte[] Decrypt(byte[] buffer)
    {
        return Transform(buffer, decryptor);
    }

    protected byte[] Transform(byte[] buffer, ICryptoTransform transform)
    {
        MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream();
        using (CryptoStream cs = new CryptoStream(stream, transform, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
        {
            cs.Write(buffer, 0, buffer.Length);
        }
        return stream.ToArray();
    }
}

#17 building

Variations of Marks' answers

  • Add "use" s
  • Make class IDisposable
  • Remove the URL encoding code to make the example simpler.
  • Add a simple test fixture to demonstrate usage

I hope it helps

[TestFixture]
public class RijndaelHelperTests
{
    [Test]
    public void UseCase()
    {
        //These two values should not be hard coded in your code.
        byte[] key = {251, 9, 67, 117, 237, 158, 138, 150, 255, 97, 103, 128, 183, 65, 76, 161, 7, 79, 244, 225, 146, 180, 51, 123, 118, 167, 45, 10, 184, 181, 202, 190};
        byte[] vector = {214, 11, 221, 108, 210, 71, 14, 15, 151, 57, 241, 174, 177, 142, 115, 137};

        using (var rijndaelHelper = new RijndaelHelper(key, vector))
        {
            var encrypt = rijndaelHelper.Encrypt("StringToEncrypt");
            var decrypt = rijndaelHelper.Decrypt(encrypt);
            Assert.AreEqual("StringToEncrypt", decrypt);
        }
    }
}

public class RijndaelHelper : IDisposable
{
    Rijndael rijndael;
    UTF8Encoding encoding;

    public RijndaelHelper(byte[] key, byte[] vector)
    {
        encoding = new UTF8Encoding();
        rijndael = Rijndael.Create();
        rijndael.Key = key;
        rijndael.IV = vector;
    }

    public byte[] Encrypt(string valueToEncrypt)
    {
        var bytes = encoding.GetBytes(valueToEncrypt);
        using (var encryptor = rijndael.CreateEncryptor())
        using (var stream = new MemoryStream())
        using (var crypto = new CryptoStream(stream, encryptor, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
        {
            crypto.Write(bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
            crypto.FlushFinalBlock();
            stream.Position = 0;
            var encrypted = new byte[stream.Length];
            stream.Read(encrypted, 0, encrypted.Length);
            return encrypted;
        }
    }

    public string Decrypt(byte[] encryptedValue)
    {
        using (var decryptor = rijndael.CreateDecryptor())
        using (var stream = new MemoryStream())
        using (var crypto = new CryptoStream(stream, decryptor, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
        {
            crypto.Write(encryptedValue, 0, encryptedValue.Length);
            crypto.FlushFinalBlock();
            stream.Position = 0;
            var decryptedBytes = new Byte[stream.Length];
            stream.Read(decryptedBytes, 0, decryptedBytes.Length);
            return encoding.GetString(decryptedBytes);
        }
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        if (rijndael != null)
        {
            rijndael.Dispose();
        }
    }
}
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Posted on Sat, 01 Feb 2020 23:36:00 -0800 by Azad